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  • Fyton
  • Exporter of medical devices, special skin care and hair care made in Italy. Manufacturers representative. Private label service also.

 FOB Price: 4.00  EUR per Box
 Minimum Order: 20.000  Boxes
 Country Of Origin: Italy Certifications and Awards: CE
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Bacillus Clausii based preparation.

This preparation is a medicine used in the prophylaxis and treatment of intestinal dismicrobism. Its effectiveness in restoring proper bacterial flora, makes it useful also in course of antibiotic therapy or gastro-enteric diseases of infectious origin with associated symptoms.

Action of the spores of Bacillus Clausii
The microorganisms contained fall into the common constitution of the intestinal flora. The form in spores, particularly resistant to adverse environmental conditions, allows the Bacillus Clausii of unscathed environment gastric acid, reaching the intestinal lumen, where thanks to a favorable environment may arise again the vegetative form. The benefits in terms of restoring the resident bacterial flora are guaranteed both by the ability to form new colonies vital, rebalancing the present population, and the ability to increase the production of B vitamins and active metabolites useful for sustaining the vitality of intestinal mucosa. At the same time, exerts a bactericidal action against the possible pathogenic component, both indirect (competition for sites of adhesion to the intestinal mucosa) that direct (secretion of active substances with bactericidal action directly or indirectly). Furthermore, the polyantibiotic resistance allows the B.Clausii to be successfully used also during antibiotic therapy, without being affected by the cytotoxic effects induced by the compound. The action antidiarrheal seems to be discharged either through the bactericidal action against pathogens, and through the ability of its metabolites to provide for the reconstitution of the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Studies and clinical efficacy


Higher order taxa

Eubacteria (kingdom); Bacteria (domain); Firmicutes (phylum); Bacilli (class); Bacillales (order); Bacillaceae (family); Bacillus (genus)

Species: Bacillus clausii

Description and significance
Bacillus clausii is Gram-positive, motile, spore-forming and like most of the Bacillus bacteria, it is rod-shaped. Colonies of B. clausii form filamentous margins that appear cream-white in color. B. clausii is alkaliphilic and produces a class of subtilisins known as high-alkaline proteases. The protease from Bacillus clausii strain 221, the H-221 protease, was the first enzyme to be identified in an alkaliphilic Bacillus. The alkaliphilic nature of the organism has also proved it to be useful in preventing and treating various gastrointestinal disorders as an oral bacteriotherapy. This organism can be found in many alkaline environments, including soil and marine habitat.
The B. clausii strain KSM-K16 was obtained from soil samples, and its phylogenic position as a member of B. clausii was identified using Bacillus clausii DSM 8716 as a reference strain- also isolated from a soil sample. DSM 8716 was identified as a novel Bacillus species by Nielsen et. all, with unique characteristics detailed in Cell Structure and Metabolism. The techniques used to determine the classification of KSM-K16 included 16S rRNA sequencing, which directly compares two or more strains of rRNA sequences to determine sequence homology- in this case the sequence of KSM-K16 with that of DSM 8716. Other classification techniques including fatty acid analysis, which identifies fatty acids in the membrane, and carbohydrate utilization tests, which establish the metabolic characteristics of the organism. Growth of KSM-K16 was observed in the temperature range of 15-50°C and the pH range of 7-10.5, with optimal growth at 40°C and pH 9.0. The KSM-K16 strain produces the high-alkaline protease, M-protease, which is hyperproduced by a mutant used in industrial scale compact heavy-duty laundry detergent. This protease, among other enzymes used by B. clausii organisms, are being extensively studied to understand their ability to function in such alkaline conditions for possible biotechnology use, making the genome of B. clausii a necessary tool.

Genome structure
The Bacillus clausii KSM-K16 complete genome is one circular chromosome. The chromosome is composed of 4,303,871 nucleotides. This genome contains 4204 genes, of which 4096 are protein coding and 96 code for RNAs. The GC content of B. clausii KSM-K16 is 44%, one of the highest GC contents amongst the Bacillus microbes. The most studied genes on the chromosome include M-protease and other alkaline-adapted proteases which have been X-ray crystallized based on genome sequence and erm-related genes (see Current Research).

Cell structure and metabolism
Bacillus clausii is a rod shaped, gram-positive microbe, meaning it is surrounded by a thick cell wall. The cell wall is made up of the peptidoglycan murien. B. clausii cells tend to line up into chain-like formation, observable as a long rod cell. B. clausii is an endospore producing microbe that creates ellipsoidal spored located subterminally or paracentrally in the sporangium. Spores of B. clausii are resistant to many antibiotics including erythromycin, lincomycin, cephalosporins, and cycloserine.
Bacillus clausii strain DSM 8716 was originally noticed as a novel species upon the characteristics of ability to hydrolyze casein, ability to reduce nitrate, and ability to grow at 50°C. Further tests showed Bacillus clausii were able to use multiple sources of carbon including: L-aribose, xylitol, galactose, dulcitol, sorbitol, methyl a-D-mannoside, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, D-tagose, 2-ketogluconate. Part of current classification tests probe for which carbon sources are used by a Bacillus strands to identify its species. Nitrate reduction uses nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. The use of nitrate as the electron acceptor into reduced nitrite is not as efficient as the use of oxygen- and microbes such as B. clausii will prefer the use of oxygen over nitrate in terms of energy production. But in environments of low oxygen such as soil, where B. clausii is usually found, nitrate reduction can be used to keep electron transport in operation to maintain an electron gradient for ATP synthesis.

Bacillus clausii is found in the soil where it can reduce nitrate to nitrite. The use of nitrite to become other reduced forms of nitrogenous compounds is possible, and some bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are capable of the complete reduction of nitrite. But the extent of nitrate reduction has not been studied thoroughly in Bacillus clausii. A possible relationship with other organisms that use nitrites may therefore exist.
B. clausii DSM 8716 were oberved in linked chain form with each other. [9] In terms of other organisms, no published journals discuss a direct relationship with B. clausii. B. clausii spores have been used in a European probiotic called Enterogermina, which stimulates GI tract immune system function by increasing production of secretory A immunoglobulin- indirectly acting as an antagonist to other bacterial pathogens that infect the gastrointestinal tract (see Current Research and Application to Biotechnology).

Bacillus clausii resistance to many antibiotics makes it seem capable of harm to humans, but Bacillus clausii sporulated strains are actually used in the treatment of gastrointestinal illnesses to restore intestinal flora because of their antibiotic resistance and ability to stimulate immune activity- a class of bacteria dubbed probiotics (see Application to Biotechnology).

Application to Biotechnology
B. clausii genome sequence is being studied for its importance in biotechnology: "[Bacillus clausii and other relatives] are now being investigated in order to better understand the physiology, biochemistry, and especially molecular genetics underlying the behavior of alkaliphilic bacteria . Most of the studies have been performed to examine enzyme biotechnology, as alkaliphilic Bacillus strains produce enzymes, such as xylanases, cellulases, amylases, and proteases, that are very useful in industry and domestic life" .
B. clausii strain KSM-K16, for example, produces especially useful proteases known as of M, H, and N-proteases. A proteolytic enzyme cleaves polypeptides into smaller pieces of amino acids. Like other Bacillus organisms, KSM-K16 secretes its proteases directly into the medium, especially during periods of low nutrition, coupled with the process of sporulation. The control of protease release has been studied in more detail with Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis studies has shown that regulatory events during periods of cellular stress can lead to a cascade of events that include the increased release of proteloytic enzymes; more specifically, the regulatory phosphorylation of the transcription factor Spo0A inhibits the repression of a gene that encodes the B. subtilis protease. Microbial control of M-protease is similarly studied to implement for industrial use for mass production by B. claussi strain KSM-K16.
This most extensively studied protease produced by KSM-K16, M-protease, is used in heavy-duty detergents to remove protein containing spots from laundry. M-protease has a maximum enzyme activity at pH 12.3 and 55°C in phosphate-NaOH buffer. The ability for M-protease to function at such high pH was remarkable, and the enzyme characteristics were studied to determine what modifications exist on the structural level of the protein to enable its activity in such alkaline conditions, using X-ray crystallography and genome sequencing. Results indicated that the unique protease contained a lower number of negatively charged amino acids and lysine residues, with an increase in arginine and nuetral amino acids than proteases not adapted to such alkaline environments. This in effect increases the isoelectric point of the enzyme to enable its function in high Ph.
With this important information, bioengineers can design novel proteins in the lab to be used in such extreme conditions. For example, alkaline proteases are currently finding newer uses, including their usage to create useful biomass from fibrous proteins such as horn, feather or hair. A couple other uses include hydrolysis of gelatine layers of X-ray films and the recovery of silver.
The spores of B. clausii and other related Bacilli are used as probiotics to improve the intestinal microbial balance during periods of antibiotic usage, modify the immune system function of the GI tract, and act as anti-microbial agents themselves. Probiotic-containing treatments are available for human nutrition, animal feed supplements, and also for aquaculture. An antibiotic resistant probiotic known as Enterogermina consists of 4 strains of Bacillus microbes (O/C, N/R, SIN, and T), all of which were recently reclassified from B. subtilis to B. clausii. Enterogermina is notably used in the treatment of diarrhea and prevention of infectious gastrointestinal diseases. Though not completely understood, the enzyme secretions of B. clausii during sporulation are believed to lead to these positive effect on the GI tract; during sporulation, strains from Enterogermina were found to release antimicrobial compounds and modulate immune activity by increasing production of secretory immunoglobin A. The spore resistance to antibiotics makes it especially useful for use in conjunction with antibiotic treatment for other pathogens.


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